Introduire les étudiants dans le monde des télécommunications en leur inculquant les concepts de
bases sur les réseaux informatiques locaux traditionnels et émergents. Maîtriser les contraintes
spécifiques des réseaux locaux. Choisir un réseau local et les équipements associés. Dimensionner,
installer, configurer, diagnostiquer un réseau local.


Local networks are built by interconnecting several different pieces of equipment within the same company where distances and speeds are limited to a few kilometers and tens of Giga bits per second respectively. The Ethernet architecture which is mainly used in wired LANs uses layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model. The interconnection equipment of local networks intervenes at different levels where we find the implementation of several adequate communication protocols. This course focuses first on the main notions of data transmission and then on the main standardization bodies as well as the standardization proposed by the IEEE model (the MAC and LLC sublayer) and which is added to the OSI model. Secondly, the presentation of the addressing, the formats of the Ethernet frame, the method of access: CSMA/CD as well as the rules and Laws for the Ethernet network are given. Finally, the presentation of the TCP/IP Model and a comparison with OSI are given. The Internet layer is introduced in detail later (ARP/RARP, IP and ICMP. IPv4 addressing: nomenclature, address classes, subnet mask, subnets and supernets) then the transport level protocols UDP and TCP are described. 

Keywords: Standardization bodies, OSI model, IEEE model, TCP/IP, ARP/RARP, UDP/TCP, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, WLAN, ICMP, IPv4 and IPv6 addressing.